The elemental makeup of an object determines its dating method.
Once you determine the makeup of the object, you'll then employ one of the methods of dating below to determine its age.
The underlying principle of stratigraphic analysis in archaeology is that of superposition.
This term means that older artefacts are usually found below younger items.
However, these methods cannot date an object precisely, because the object is dated in comparison with something else; it's not dated in its own right.